Papilloma is defined as
The birth weight of the foetuses is also affected by the age of the mother.
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However, the length of hospital stays for parturients was not significantly different between the 2 age groups: 6. Discussions Our hospital is a university tertiary unit, the reference centre for the northeastern region of Romania, a region with a low socioeconomic level and with a high overall birth rate, with 48, births between andrepresenting 2.
For this reason, this region may be considered an interesting source of information regarding adolescent obstetrical outcomes that could be generalised at a national level. We considered teenage pregnancy to be pregnancy that ended before the patient's 20th birthday [ 1 ]. We considered 20—year-old parturients as the control group, which is reported also in these articles: WHO [ 1 ], Nove et al.
This choice is justified by the favourable birth outcome for this age group. Pregnancy comorbidities, chronic and gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia and eclampsia, occurred similarly across age groups. These results support the findings of Torvie et al.
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The rate of foetal anomalies we found in teenage mothers coincided with that reported by Torvie et al. With regard to prenatal characteristics, teenage mothers in our study were less likely to have pregestational and gestational diabetes, a fact also reported by others [ 7 — 91315 ].
Teenage mothers were also less predisposed to obesity, which supports the findings of Leppälahti et al. Our study, in agreement with studies in the literature [ 8101314 ], showed a significantly higher incidence of anaemia in the teenage group.
Alouini et al. Our data show also that lower urinary tract infections occur more frequently in papilloma is defined as is defined as pregnancies compared with young adult pregnancies. Few studies in the literature have analysed the association between teen pregnancy and genital infections. Papilloma is defined as et al. In our study, with the exception of genital warts and trichomoniasis, papilloma is defined as could not find an association between teen pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis, Candida, or syphilis.
We also found a lower incidence of spontaneous rupture of membranes as reported by Gupta et al. In turn, Shah et al. Infections with hepatitis B wart with foot hepatitis C viruses were higher in the control group, as reported by Kurth et al.
Our results are in accordance with almost all studies that found higher risks of preterm birth [ 681619 ], low birth weight [ 8151920 ], and foetal growth restriction [ 781519 ]. Shrim et al. However, in our study, greater prematurity correlated with a lower parturient age. The same consideration is applicable to the birth weight of foetuses. These results regarding caesarean delivery support the results of other published findings [ 7 — 101415172021 ]; meanwhile Gortzak-Uzan et al.
A lower risk for instrumental delivery has been cited by many authors [ 7101315 ], but Sagili et al. Sagili papilloma is defined as al.
We did not find a higher risk in our study for either cervical or perineal lacerations or for perineal rupture of 3rd papilloma is defined as 4th degrees, but episiotomies were more common in the teenage group.
Torvie et al. In our database search, we found a significantly lower Apgar score cancer sarcoma tumor 1 minute and 5 minutes among teenage mothers, a fact confirmed in other studies also papilloma is defined as 81519 ].
The Novelty of the Study Even if Romania holds second place in WHO statistics regarding teenage pregnancy, this study is the second study published in the English literature about medical aspects related to teenage pregnancy and delivery outcomes in Romania.
It focused particularly on social factors in teenage births.
Concerning the pregnancy and delivery outcomes, the results were similar: teenager mothers were more likely than adult mothers to give birth by vaginal delivery, and the rate of operative delivery was lower among this group. The newborns of teenage mothers were more likely to have low birth weight, and the length of hospital stay was similar to that of adult mothers' newborns.
Another strength of the present study is the detailed analysis of the genital infections associated with pregnancy. One of the mechanisms for preterm birth is the high frequency of genital infections enhancing local prostaglandin levels: few studies have examined the infections associated with pregnancy [ 1524 ]. In our hospital, performing a cervical culture is mandatory for all pregnant women at admission, and lochio culture is performed papilloma is defined as the first 48 hours after birth.
But because the goal is the prevention of nosocomial infections and not the preterm birth, screening for chlamydia was not carried out. In our study, we could not find a correlation between teenage pregnancy and genital infections, except for anogenital warts and trichomoniasis. No correlation could be established for syphilis papilloma is defined as other vaginal infections with Gardnerella, Candida, E.
Premature rupture of membranes occurred more frequently in adults than in teenagers, and, for chorioamnionitis, we could not establish a correlation with patient age. The other mechanisms described by Shrim et al. Unfortunately, we could not analyse the gynaecologic age of our patients defined as the distance between menarche and first pregnancy.